Edebiyat eğer her şey demek değilse üzerinde bir saat bile uğraşmaya değmez

K24 Ağustos ayı itibariyle Akademi Söyleşileri dizisini başlatıyor. Akademi dünyası ve sorunlarının ele alınacağı dizimizde ilk konuğumuz Ankara Sosyal Bilimler Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyat’ı Bölümü öğretim üyesi Murat Cankara.

 

Akademi Söyleşileri – Melek Aydoğan – Edebiyat

Ankara Sosyal Bilimler Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü öğretim üyesi Murat Cankara ile Ermeni harfli Türkçe Edebiyat, edebiyat tarih yazımı, akademide edebiyat çalışmaları ve eğitimi üzerine konuştuk. Cankara, Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Tiyatro Bölümü’nde Tiyatro Tarihi ve Teorisi eğitimi aldı. “Ahmet Mithat Efendi ve Beşir Fuat’a Göre Gerçekçilik” başlıklı teziyle yüksek lisansını, “İmparatorluk ve Roman: Ermeni Harfli Türkçe Romanları Osmanlı/ Türk Edebiyat Tarih yazımında Konumlandırmak” başlıklı teziyle doktorasını Bilkent Üniversitesi’nde tamamladı. Modern Osmanlı/ Türk ve Ermeni edebiyat ve kültürleri, Osmanlı/ Türk tarih yazımı, mizah ve komedi tarihi/ teorisi üzerine çeşitli araştırmaları bulunuyor.

 

  • Ermeni harfleriyle yayımlanmış ilk Türkçe romanlar üzerine yazdığınız doktora tezinizde, Osmanlı/ Türk edebiyat tarihyazımı geleneğinde bu romanların nasıl ele alındığı/ alınmadığı sorusundan yola çıkarak, mevcut edebiyat tarihyazımı geleneğini sorguluyorsunuz. Öncelikle, Osmanlı Ermenilerinin kendi alfabelerini kullanarak Türkçe yazmalarını konuşalım istiyorum. Bu durumu Türkçenin toplumsal tarihi açısından nasıl değerlendiriyorsunuz?

 

Her zamanki gibi, çok geç

Evet, tarihyazımı geleneğinin sorgulanması tezin gerçekten önemli bir bölümünü oluşturuyor. İşin doğrusu, baştan böyle planlamamıştım. Ancak bu tür bir konu çalıştığınızda her şeyi kontrol etmeniz mümkün olmuyor. Zira oynak bir zeminde hareket ediyorsunuz. Hem vaatkâr (yeni, ilginç, kavramsal incelemelere açık vb.) hem tehlikeli (ortada bir alan ve gerekli temel bilgiler olmadığı için bazı yükümlülüklerden, yüzeysellikten ve ilk akla gelen açıklamaların çekiciliğinden kaçınmak zor). Velhasılı kelam tez, yorucu ve sorunluydu. Ama kitaplarla geçirmek için çabaladığım hayatıma çok önemli bir katkısı oldu. Önümde yepyeni bir alan açtı: Dilin toplumsal tarihi. Her zamanki gibi, çok geç tabii.

 

Asıl meseleye tezi bitirirken vardım yani. Mesele dediğim, Türkçenin aynı zamanda Ermenilerin de dili olması ya da Ermenilerin dillerinden birinin de Türkçe olması. Nasıl formüle ederseniz. İster dost meclislerinde isterse çeşitli komite ve jüriler karşısında olsun, tez konumu dile getirmeye başladığım günden beri istisnasız olarak karşılaştığım soru şu: Neden? Neden Ermeniler, Ermeni harflerini kullanarak Türkçe yazıyorlardı?

 

Ulus, devlet, dil ve yazıyı kafada birleştiren modern zihniyet için kafa karıştırıcı bir durum şüphesiz. Ama tarihe, hatta bugün başka toplumlara bu gözle baktığınızda, çok da şaşırtıcı değil. Düşünsenize, Türkçe bugüne kadar ondan fazla yazı sistemiyle yazılmış. Neyse. Ermeniler, Ermeni harfleriyle Türkçe yazıp okuyorlardı çünkü önemli bir bölümünün anadili Türkçeydi fakat Türkçeyi Arap harfleriyle okuyup yazmak onlar için kolay değildi.

 

Nasıl öğreneceksiniz Arap harflerini?

Bunu kimileri sadece Arap harflerinin zorluğuyla, kimileri de toplumsal sınırlamalarla açıklıyor. Ancak daha basit nedenler de olabilir: Nasıl öğreneceksiniz Arap harflerini? Hele Kuran gibi bir motivasyonunuz yoksa ve buna yönelik kurumsal destekten (örneğin mahalle mektebi) yoksunsanız. Netleştirmek için genellikle şu örneği veriyorum: Kiliseye giden ortalama bir Ermeni düşünün. Gündelik dilde belki sırf Türkçe, belki biraz Ermenice biraz Türkçe konuşuyor, iki dili birbirine karıştırıyor, duruma bağlı olarak birinden diğerine geçiyor. Kilisede kullanılan dili, yani klasik Ermeniceyi ise bilmiyor. Zaten bu, gündelik konuşma dili değil. Öte yandan, belki bölük pörçük belki de hiç anlamadığı bu dildeki duaları dinliyor, seslendirebiliyor. Tıpkı Kuran kursuna giden bir çocuğun Arapça bilmediği ve dili anlayamadığı halde Kuran okuyabilmesi, yani metni seslendirebilmesi gibi.

 

Diğer bir deyişle, kiliseye giden bu kişi Ermeni harflerini çok iyi biliyor. Konuştuğu dili bildiği harflerle yazınca işte bu da Ermeni harfli Türkçe oluyor. Şüphesiz, mesele bu kadar basit değil. Ermeni harflerinin Ermeni milleti için kutsallığını, millî kimliğin başat bileşenlerinden biri olduğunu, yerli halka ulaşmak isteyen misyonerler için müthiş bir fırsat sunduğunu ve bu nedenle Ermeni Kilisesi’nin karşı-propaganda metinleri yayınlamaya giriştiğini de hatırlamak gerek. Sonuçta, Ermeni harfli Türkçe yazma pratiği, dil- yazı- kimlik ilişkilerini gözden geçirmek için önemli bir fırsat. Üstelik bu metinler, Türkçenin yazıyla buluşması, modernleşmesi, sadeleşmesi, standartlaşması; adına ne dersek diyelim, bu süreçleri tartışmak için son derece zengin bir malzeme sunuyorlar.

Ankara üniversitesi


Bugün nasıl çocuklarımızın iyi bir iş bulabilmeleri umuduyla İngilizce eğitimine para döküyorsak, bir zamanlar imparatorluğun gayrimüslim çocuklarının Türkçe öğrenmelerinin (konuşmadan ziyade Arap harfleriyle okuyup yazmayı kast ediyorum) de son derce somut bir karşılığı vardı. 


Eğitimin Modernleşmesi

  • Ermenilerin ana dilinin Türkçe olması meselesini hangi sürecin sonucu olarak tartışmak gerekir?

Bu konuda ne yazık ki bildiğim kadarıyla çok kapsamlı ve tatmin edici çalışmalar yok. Bir yaklaşım, bunun bir asimilasyon ve şiddet sürecinin sonucunda ortaya çıktığı. Konu benim için yeni sayılır. Yine de, bu yaklaşımın iyice temellendirildiği bir kaynağa rastlamadığımı söyleyebilirim. Yani ben, yüzyıllar içerisinde Türkçenin nasıl Ermenilerin önemli bir bölümünün anadili haline geldiğini çok boyutlu inceleyen bir çalışma okumadım. Bunun şiddet de içeren bir süreç olduğu muhakkak. Ancak kafalarda bazı sorular uyandırmak için şu kadarını söyleyebilirim: Zamansal, mekânsal ve sınıfsal ayrımlar yapmak gerekiyor. İstanbul’da yaşayan bir Ermeni’nin Türkçe konuşmasıyla Anadolu’nun bir köyünde yaşayan Ermeni’nin Türkçe konuşması arasında sadece biçim değil tercih bakımından da farklar olsa gerek. Sonra 19’uncu yüzyıl boyunca Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun geçirdiği dönüşümü hesaba katmalı. Örneğin eğitimin modernleşmesi, liman kentlerine göç, avukatlık gibi yeni meslek gruplarının dille ilişkisi ya da yüzyılın son çeyreğinde imparatorluğun dil politikasında meydana gelen değişiklik.

 

Bugün nasıl çocuklarımızın iyi bir iş bulabilmeleri umuduyla İngilizce eğitimine para döküyorsak, bir zamanlar imparatorluğun gayrimüslim çocuklarının Türkçe öğrenmelerinin (konuşmadan ziyade Arap harfleriyle okuyup yazmayı kast ediyorum) de son derce somut bir karşılığı vardı. Ermenilerin Türkçeyle ilişkisi üzerine kafa yorarken bunları da unutmamakta yarar var.

 

  • Katıldığım bir söyleşinizde, Ermenilerin kendi alfabeleriyle Türkçe yazmalarının, Türkçenin standartlaşmasını ve sadeleşmesini sağladığını söylemiştiniz. Bu tespit, dilsel şiddet açısından neye karşılık geliyor?

Ermeni harfli Türkçe yazmak

Muhtemelen “sağladığını” değil, “sağlayan önemli unsurlardan biri olduğunu” söylemeye çalışmışımdır. Bazen konuşmanın coşkusuna kapılıp haddimi aşabiliyorum. Kastım şu: 1) Ermenilerin yazıyla, matbaayla, neşriyatla, kısacası yazılı kültürle ilişkileri malum. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda bu konuda öncü rol oynadıkları da malum. Örneğin Müslüman tebaadan daha önce gazete çıkarmaya başlıyorlar. Bu gazetelerin bazıları Ermeni harfli Türkçe çünkü daha fazla insana ulaşmayı amaçlıyorlar ve genellikle Ermeni harfli Türkçe olmalarını böyle meşrulaştırıyorlar. Şimdi, kitle iletişiminin, dolayısıyla gazetenin dilde basitleşmeyi gerektirdiğini ve bunu sağladığını biliyoruz. Ancak Ermenilerin durumunda başka bir şey daha var.

 

Ermeni harfli Türkçe yazan, okuyan, yayın yapan insanların ancak bir bölümü toplumsal konumları gereği bürokratik dile aşina. Bürokratik dilden kastım Arapça ve Farsça kelimelerin, tamlamaların uzun cümleler içerisinde bol bol kullanıldığı, kimilerinin “Osmanlıca” deyince aklına gelen dil. Oysa bu insanların geri kalanı, Türkçeyi konuştukları gibi, gündelik dille yazıyorlar. Bu çok büyük bir avantaj. Yıllar sonra dili “sadeleştirmek”, konuşma ve yazı dilleri arasındaki makası kapatmak isteyen Türk entelektüellerinin hedefine daha önce ulaşmış oluyorlar yani. Buna bir de Avrupa’yla olan bağları, dolayısıyla da çevirileri ekleyin. İşte oldu! Nitekim, bir süre sonra, Türk gençler de Ermeni harflerini öğrenip Avrupa siyasetini Ermeni harfli Türkçe gazetelerden takip etmeye başlıyorlar.

Ermeni harfleriyle Türkçedeki bütün sesler rahatlıkla gösterilebiliyor

Daha sonra bu eğilim edebî çevirileri de içine alacak şekilde genişliyor. Düşünsenize, bir iki gecede yeni bir alfabe öğreniyorsunuz ve okuyabileceklerinizin sınırı bir anda inanılmaz genişliyor. Kendi konuşma dilinizde Batı edebiyatı okumaya başlayabiliyorsunuz. Bir süre sonra da Türk entelektüellerinden bazıları bu duruma dikkat çekip, kendilerinin de, yazılarında kullandıkları dili bu yönde değiştirmeleri gerektiği uyarısını yapıyor. Diğer bir deyişle, biz de Ermenilerinki gibi bir Türkçe kullanalım yoksa gençlerimiz hep onların gazetelerini okumaya başlayacaklar demeye getiriyorlar. 2)19’uncu yüzyıl boyunca Ermeni dilciler sözlükler, gramerler ve mükâleme kitapları (basit diyaloglar üzerinden konuşma dilini öğreten kitaplar) vasıtasıyla Türkçenin kuralarının yazıya geçirilmesine, teknik bir ifadeyle standartlaşmasına ve modern bir yazı dili haline gelmesine önemli bir katkıda bulunuyorlar.

 

Bu kitaplardan onlarcası var. Üstelik, bugün burun kıvırdığımız ama üretim olarak yanına bile yaklaşamadığımız şarkiyatçılar, bu kitaplardan çok yararlanıyorlar çünkü gündelik dile, telaffuza dair en yararlı bilgileri bunlarda bulabiliyorlar. Neden? Hem Ermeni harfleriyle Türkçedeki bütün sesler rahatlıkla gösterilebildiği hem de bu kitaplar gündelik ifadeler ve deyimler bakımından zengin olduğu için. Zaten 19’uncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren Arap alfabesinin ıslahı veya yerine başka bir alfabeye geçilmesi üzerine tartışmalarda Türk entelektüellerinin Ermeni harflerine gönderme yapmasının, hatta bazılarının (örneğin Namık Kemal) Ermeni harflerinin Türkçeye Latin alfabesinden daha uygun olduğunu dile getirmesinin nedenlerinden biri de bu.

Temsili Bir “ÖTEKİ”

  • Ermeni harfli Türkçeyle yazılmış ilk metinlerin yönelimlerine baktığımızda Müslüman Türklerin ve Ermenilerin kültürel etkileşimini saptayamıyoruz. Arap harfli Türkçe ile yazılmış ilk kurgusal metinlerde de benzer bir tavır söz konusu. Bunun istisnası, temsili bir “öteki”ye yer veren Ahmet Mithat Efendi’nin romanları. Her iki edebiyatın bu metinlerini karşılaştırdığınızda, ne tür ortaklıklar ve farklılıklar görüyorsunuz?

 

Tezi yazarken bu bana da dikkat çekici gelmişti. Ama çok da anormal bir durum değil aslında. Öncelikle “metinler” derken “romanlar”ı kast ediyor olduğunuzu varsayıyorum. Yani Ermeniler için kabaca 19’uncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren, Türkler içinse son çeyreğinden itibaren rastladığımız bir tür. İlginç dönem, zor dönem, çelişkilerin dönemi. İmparatorluğun milletleri arasındaki sınırlar bir yandan aşınırken bir yandan da güçleniyor. Üstelik aynı saiklerle. Örneğin eğitim. Bir yandan karma okul ve sınıflarda yan yana okumaya başlayan Bulgarlar, Ermeniler, Rumlar, Yahudiler, Türkler var; bu milletlerin fertleri bir yandan da, anadillerinde eğitim veren okullarda –eş zamanlı ve aynı ölçüde olmasa da– bir ulus, vatan tahayyül etmeye başlıyorlar. Ve en önemlisi, roman dediğimiz türün bu çerçevede bir misyonu var ve bu misyon henüz kesinlikle topluma, hayata ayna tutmak değil. Milleti eğitmek, terbiye etmek, ona bir topluluk bilinci aşılamak olabilir, ama benim incelediğim dönemin romanları için –ki 1851-1868 arasında yayımlanmışlar– “hayatı olduğu gibi” (Krikor Zohrab’ın kulakları çınlasın) yansıtma fikri için henüz erken.

 

Şunların ortak olduğunu söyleyebilirim: Biçimsel olarak benziyor bu metinler birbirlerine. Rastlantıların, kavuşamayan âşıkların, intiharların gırla gittiği; iyiyle kötü arasındaki çizginin son derece net olduğu, kendi içine kapalı, okurlarına net bir mesaj vermek isteyen melodramatik metinler bunlar. Ermeniler de Türkler de bu romanları yazarken Avrupalı romantik ve ön-romantik diyebileceğimiz yazarların eserlerinden etkileniyorlar. Ermenilerin daha gündelik bir Türkçeyle yazmaları bir yana, aradaki en büyük fark şu: Ermeniler romantizmi daha devrimci tarafıyla alıyorlar. Ermeni harfli Türkçe romanlarda hep bir cemaat içi çatışma var. Bu mezhep çatışması olabilir, yeni palazlanan esnaf sınıfıyla geleneksel elit arasındaki çatışma olabilir.

 

Yazarlar, yeni olanın yanında

Genç, okumuş, devrimci Ermenilerin mücadelelerini destekliyorlar. Çocukların, baba ve kilise otoritesini sorgulayan gençlerin yanındalar. Türk yazarlar ise Avrupa romantizminin muhafazakâr yüzünü tercih ediyorlar. Toplumsal değişimin aşırılıklarını törpülemek istiyorlar. Eskinin, babanın, otoritenin yanındalar. Biliyorum, böyle anlatınca fazla basite indirgemiş oluyorum ve son derece haklı itirazlar gelebilir bu dediklerime. Ama ancak bu şekilde kısa ve elle tutulabilir bir hale getirebiliyorum.

 

  • Kültürel geçişler bakımından edebî metinlerin bize sağladığı verilerin politik bir tarafı da var. Ortak bir tarihin yazımı için aynı dili farklı alfabelerle üreten bu metinleri tarihle yüzleşme göstergesi olarak da ele almanın faydalarından söz edebilir miyiz?

Elbette. Bu çok politik bir mevzu. Kültüre bu gözle bakmaya başladığımızda fark ediyoruz ki çoğul kimlikler, üzerlerinde tire işareti taşıyan melez kimlikler (örneğin Katolik-Ermeni) kültürün yaratılmasında ve bir yerden diğerine taşınmasında çok önemli bir rol oynuyorlar. Bildiğimiz ilk Türkçe roman olan Akabi Hikâyesi’ni Ermeni harfleriyle kaleme alan Hovsep Vartanyan aynı anda bir Osmanlı, Ermeni, Katolik ve Mehitarist’ti. Bu kimlikler birbirini dışlamıyordu.

 

Akdeniz’de boğulmamak

Batı kültürünün komedi anlayışı üzerinde muazzam bir etkisi olan iki Romalı yazardan biri olan Terentius, Kuzey Afrika’dan Roma’ya getirilmiş bir köleydi ve burada Yunan komedilerini uyarlayarak Plautus’la birlikte Latin komedisini icat etmişti. O halde, evet, bu metinler üzerine konuşmak/ yazmak, onları bulup çıkarmak, üzerlerindeki örtüyü kaldırmak, onları yeniden edebiyat ve kültür tarihinin bir parçası yapmak politik bir eylem. Hele ki içinde bulunduğumuz yılın sadece ilk yarısında 2000 mültecinin Akdeniz sularında boğulduğunu düşünürsek.

 

Hem Avrupalıların hem Amerikalıların hem de bu topraklarda yaşayanların, acilen, “kültürümüz” dedikleri şeyin yaratılmasında çoğul kimliklerin oynadığı rolü hatırlamaları gerekiyor. Yalnız bu çok çabuk romantize edilerek sulanabilecek de bir şey. O nedenle şunu da asla unutmamaya çalışıyorum: Çoğul kimliğe sahip olmak için önce hayatta kalabilmek gerekiyor; yani Akdeniz’de boğulmamak ya da kirli bir iç savaşta ölmemek. Ben, bir Ermeni harfli Türkçe metni Latin harflerine aktarırken bir yandan da insanlar ölüyor.

 


Özneler arası bir diyalogdan ziyade kolektif kimlikler arasında düzeysiz bir kavgaya dönüşme eğiliminde her tartışma. Lep demeden leblebi anlaşılıyor, birinin attığı pası diğeri havada tamamlıyor. Likelar aynı, espriler çok güldürse de tahmin edilebilir.


 

Edebiyat çalışmalarıyla ilgili kaygılar

 

  • Ankara Sosyal Bilimler Üniversitesi, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü’nde öğretim üyesisiniz. Akademideki edebiyat çalışmalarıyla ilgili kaygılarınız var mı?

Kaygıdan başka bir şeyim yok. Ben hasbelkader hâlâ bir üniversite bünyesinde çalışıyorum. Yani şanslı çoğunluktanım. Pek çok arkadaşım gibi de, çalıştığım okulun kuruluş aşamasında olmasının getirdiği avantaj ve dezavantajlar arasında salınıp duruyorum. Bence Ankara Sosyal Bilimler Üniversitesi iyi bir proje. Ama bu işler tek başına olmaz. Kültürün bütünü başka bir yerden, benim hiç hoşlanmadığım bir yerden konuşuyor. İkincisi, “edebiyat” sosyal bilimler mantığına tam oturmuyor. Dolayısıyla ben, durduğum yerden baktığımda, artık edebiyat çalışmalarının akademideki yerini göremiyorum. Bu illa kötü bir şey olmak zorunda da değil. Edebiyat için fazla sıkıcı, fazla dar bir yer üniversite.

  • Akademik eleştirinin ve akademideki edebiyat tarihçiliğinin tarihsel koşullarını düşündüğümüzde, eleştirinin üretilmesinin birtakım “kutsal”lar sebebiyle yöntemli ve temelli bir şekilde ilerlemediğini söyleyebiliriz. Siz Türkiye’deki akademik eleştiriyi kanonu oluşturma bağlamında nasıl değerlendiriyorsunuz?

Bu soruyu doğru anladığımdan emin değilim. Ama anladığım kadarıyla şansımı deneyeceğim. “Akademik eleştiri” her neyse ona uzak sayılırım. Ben daha ziyade bir konunun peşinde hamster gibi dönüyor ya da konudan konuya savruluyorum. Bunu da ne tarihten ne teoriden soyutlayabildiğim için başım dertten kurtulmuyor. Her şey yarım, her şey eksik. Dolayısıyla bu tür bir eleştirinin gündemini de takip edemiyorum. Tabii arada bir ortalık alevleniyor, mesela timeline Şule Gürbüz ya da Ayhan Geçgin’le doluyor. O zaman elimden geldiğince bakıyorum, ne oluyor diye.

 

Kültürel İktidar

Benim kuşağımın bir bölümü üzerinde en etkili olmuş eleştirmenler akademi dışından: Nurdan Gürbilek ve Orhan Koçak. Akademiden de Jale Parla ve öğrencileri var. Akademik eleştirinin dili ve tercihleri üzerinde çok etkili oldu bu isimler. “Bir bölüm” dememin sebebi, bu etkinin belli üniversiteler çevresinde yoğunlaşmasıdır. 2000’lerle birlikte Bilkent, Boğaziçi ve Bilgi üniversiteleri etrafında yoğunlaşan; sonra Sabancı, Koç, Şehir ve Özyeğin üniversiteleriyle genişleyen bir eleştiri ortamı, hatta dili bu. Bir de devlet üniversiteleri var, taşra var, klasik Türkoloji bölümleri ve edebiyat tezleri var. Bambaşka bir dil. Son olarak da, kültürel hegemonyadan şikayet edip kültürel iktidar talep edenler. Bu gruplar arasında ilişkiden ziyade ilişkisizlik görüyorum. Mutlaka geçişler oluyordur ama bunlar münferit vakalar gibi görünüyor bana. Yani sanırım bunlar ayrı dünyaların eleştirileri. Dolayısıyla kanondan çok kanonlardan söz etmek daha doğru geliyor bana. Bu konuda Orhan Tekelioğlu’nun güzel bir makalesi olduğunu hatırlıyorum.1

 

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Elbette bu benim durduğum yerden gördüğüm manzara. Sınırlı bir gözleme dayanıyor ve kesinlikle bir doğruluk iddiası taşımıyor. Buna tespit bile diyemem. Ama usule ilişkin şöyle bir genelleme yapmaya cüret edeceğim: Bu farklı eleştiri dünyaları içinde kol kırılsa da yen içinde kalmasına özen gösteriliyor. Saflar iyice sıkılaştı. Özneler arası bir diyalogdan ziyade kolektif kimlikler arasında düzeysiz bir kavgaya dönüşme eğiliminde her tartışma. Lep demeden leblebi anlaşılıyor, birinin attığı pası diğeri havada tamamlıyor. Likelar aynı, espriler çok güldürse de tahmin edilebilir. E-kamu’da bundan kaçınmak zor galiba. İşin en kötü tarafı da uluslararası ilişkiler ve strateji dehalarının yumurtladığı bir soruya kilitlenmiş olmak: Bu söylediğin/ yazdığın kimin işine yarıyor? Eğer kafanız iyiyken, ait olduğunuz grubun bir kutsalına dokunma gafletinde bulunursanız, en iyi ihtimalle dehşetli bir sessizlikle çevreleniyorsunuz. Tez ve makalelerde ise bu neredeyse mümkün değil. Eğer fail içeriden biriyse ya da eleştirmek dışarının işine yarama potansiyeli taşıyorsa, bir yayıncılık skandalına kimse çıt çıkarmayabiliyor.

 

Bir metnin matbaada olduğu sosyal medyaya düşer düşmez, onun hakkında söylenebilecekler ortalığa dökülmeye başlıyor, sonra da değişmiyor zaten. Yani bir kanon tatlı tatlı katılaşmaya başlıyor. Yani şahane bir ortam. Sanki tartışmaya değil de galip gelmeye ihtiyacımız var; hak etmeden de olsa, hakem yardımıyla da olsa galip gelmeye, varlığımızı ötekine kabul ettirmeye. Sanki bir kez galip gelebilsek, sonra iyi oynamaya da başlayacağız. İster ülkenin durumuna benzetin, ister Fenerbahçe’nin isterseniz de Jan Valjean’ın durumuna. Benim gördüğüm budur.

 


Velhasılıkelam, edebiyatın hızla üniversiteden uzaklaşmasında, kendine yeni alanlar açmasında fayda var. Üstelik, haydi ben de modaya uyayım, üniversite bünyesindeki edebiyat eğitiminin bu koşullarda sürdürülebilir olmadığı aşikâr. Yılda binlerce Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı bölümü mezununa ihtiyacımız var mı?


Özerk Edebiyat Eğitimi

  • Akademideki edebiyat eğitiminin daha özerk bir alana dönüşmesi için sizce nelere ihtiyaç var?

Bence edebiyat tamamen akademinin dışına çıkmalı. Hoş zaten akademi edebiyatı yavaş yavaş dışına atacak sanırım. Atmasa bile projecilik modasına uyduracak. Diğer bir deyişle, artık üniversite bünyesinde edebiyat eğitimi olabileceğini, bunun herhangi bir karşılığı olduğunu düşünmüyorum. Başka bir dünyanın hevesiydi o, bitti. Dünya üniversitelerden başka şeyler bekliyor. Ben de kendimi gittikçe dinozor gibi hissetmeye başladım, huysuzluğumdan bıktım, istihdamımı sorgular oldum. Meslektaşım dediğim insanlarla aynı dili konuşmuyoruz. Bir yandan da standart kriterler üzerinden değerlendirilmeye çalışılıyoruz. Müthiş bir haksızlık, eşitsizlik. Velhasılıkelam, edebiyatın hızla üniversiteden uzaklaşmasında, kendine yeni alanlar açmasında fayda var. Üstelik, haydi ben de modaya uyayım, üniversite bünyesindeki edebiyat eğitiminin bu koşullarda sürdürülebilir olmadığı aşikâr.

 

Yılda binlerce Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı bölümü mezununa ihtiyacımız var mı? Bu gençlerden binde kaçı akademisyen olacak, kaçı öğretmen olarak atanmayı bekleyecek? Yüksek lisanslara doktoralara filan hiç değinmiyorum bile. Yayıncılık sektörümüz de ne yazık ki iç açıcı durumda değil ve bu röportaj boyunca söylediklerim içerisinde doğruluğundan en emin olduğum şey bu. Üniversite bünyesinde edebiyat eğitimi korkunç bir israf, anlayacağınız. Devasa bir mutsuzluk üretme makinesi. Sakın yanlış anlaşılmasın. Edebiyat söz konusu olunca ben de Sartre gibi düşünüyorum: Edebiyat eğer her şey demek değilse üzerinde bir saat bile uğraşmaya değmez. Demek istediğim, bunu artık varlığı tartışmalı ve böylesi yıpranmış bir kuruma, gelecek kaygısına hapsetmek çok saçma. Daha fazlası değil.

 

Kaynak: K24

1 “Edebiyatta Tekil Bir Ulusal Kanonun Oluşmasının İmkânsızlığı Üzerine”, Orhan Tekelioğlu, Doğu Batı, No:22, Şubat-Mart-Nisan 2003, s. 65-77.

 

 

 

Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar
Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.
Ahmet Doğan
Follow Me

Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.

Edebiyat eğer her şey demek değilse üzerinde bir saat bile uğraşmaya değmez” için 93 yorum

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  • 19 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 15:56
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