Özgür Düşünce ve Bilim

Özgür Düşünce

“Bilim ve Özgür Düşünce” başlığı çerçevesinde önce, “özgürlük nedir?” sorusunu ele almak ve de bundan ne anladığımı belirtmek istiyorum.

“Özgürlük” denildiğinde üç temel kavramı dikkate alacağım. Birincisi  davranışlarda özgürlük, ikincisi ifadede özgürlük ve üçüncüsü düşüncede özgürlük.

İnsan, davranışlarda özgürlük açısından, diğer canlılara göre en alt seviyede bulunur. Çünkü davranışlarımız, hiç kuşku yok ki kültür, tarih, sosyal ilişkiler, terbiye, eğitim dediğimiz etkenler dolayısıyla kısıtlamalara tabidir. Dolayısıyla da davranışlarımızda bir özgürlük değil, tam tersine bir kısıtlamadan söz etmek gerekir. Hatta insan, eğitim, sosyal kurallar, terbiye gibi özellikleri dolayısıyla hayatını, günlük yaşamını veya davranışlarını kısıtlamadan yaşayamaz. Yani kısaca insan, davranışları açısından, hiç de özgür değildir.

İfade Özgürlüğü

“İfade özgürlüğü” ile “anlatım biçimi”ni dikkate alıyorum. Anlatım biçimi deyince de tarz, üslup veya kısaca bir şeyi ifade etmek için kullanılan yolu düşünüyorum. Nitekim düşüncemizi, duygumuzu veya herhangi bir talebimizi dile getiriş biçimini seçmek kişiye bağlı bir eylemdir. Yazı, müzik, edebiyat, resim, tavır ve davranışlarımız da hep birer anlatım biçimleridir.

Anlatım biçimini seçebilmek “özgürlük” kavramı açısından son derece önemlidir. Çünkü bireyin kendini ifade edebilme araçlarına sahip olması, özgürlüğün bir parçasıdır. Bu özellik, insanı diğer canlılardan ayırır; çünkü sadece insan kendini farklı şekilde ifade etme araçlarına sahiptir.

Özgürlük soyut bir kavramdır; ama insan onu somut bir şekilde yaşar. Bireyin kendi çabası ile sahip olabileceği ifade araçları ona bu olanağı sağlar. Fakat insan, diğer canlılardan farklı olarak, farklı ifade araçlarına sahiptir. Sevmek, nefret etmek, kıskanmak, taktir etmek, diğer canlılarda da gözlenebilir, ama sadece insan bu tür duygularını ve düşüncelerini farklı yollar ve yöntemlerle ifade edebilir. Bu durumda “özgürlük” soyut bir kavram olsa da, sonuçta insana özgüdür ve insanın bir edimi olarak mevcuttur.

 

İnsan kendisini özgürleştirebilir; özgürlüğün insana has bir özellik olması, kendini özgürleştirebilmesinden kaynaklanmaktadır. Bu husus, özgürlüğün insana özgü olmasına karşılık, her bireyin aynı derecede özgür olamamasını da açıklamaktadır. Çünkü her birey teorik olarak eşit bir şekilde özgür olabilir, yani bir şeyi istediği şekilde ifade etme özgürlüğüne sahiptir.

Fakat istediğini istediği gibi ifade etme özgürlüğü, bireyin kendiliğinden sahip olabileceği bir olanak değildir: her birey, kendi çabası sonucunda özgür olabilir, yani kendi özgürlüğünü kendisi belirler. Dolayısıyla bir şeyi özgürce istemek, onu özgürce talep edebilmek anlamına gelmez.

Kültür ve Özgürlük

Nitekim kültür, bireyi özgür kılar; çünkü ancak bu sayede birey, belirli bir şeyi görebilme, fark edebilme ve talep edebilme veya onu gerçekleştirme özgürlüğüne de sahip olabilir. İşte bu anlamda her birey teorik olarak ifade özgürlüğüne sahiptir; fakat, ancak kendi çabası sonucunda ulaşacağı araçlara bağlı olarak kendine bir özgürlük alanı temin edebilir. İnsanların kağıt üzerinde eşit olmaları, uygulamada da bu özelliğe kendiliğinden sahip olabilecekleri anlamına gelmemektedir.

Müzikteki türler, resimdeki üslup, bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri, yani kısaca duygularını ve düşüncelerini anlatma biçimleri, ifade özgürlüğü adı altında düşünülebilir. Birey geliştirebildiği, kullanabildiği, benimseyebildiği, yararlanabildiği yöntem oranında kendisini ifade edebilir, ve dolayısıyla da o oranda kendisini özgürleştirebilir. Özellikle kültür bireye bu yöntemleri öğrenmesi ve uygulaması olanağı sunar.

Birey Özgürlüğü

Düşünebilmeyi insana has bir özellik olarak kabul edebiliriz; ama özgürlük aslında düşüncesini ifade edebilme yönteminden veya araçlarından bağımsız olamaz. İnsan, düşüncesini, duygusunu veya bir eylemi kendi seçtiği şekilde ifade edebilme özgürlüğüne sahiptir. Ama önce ifade araçlarını kullanabilme, benimseyebilme ve onları oluşturabilme iradesini göstermesi gerekir. Bu durumda birey kendisini ancak kendi çabası sonucunda özürleştirebilir.

Bireyin kendisini özgürleştirmesi, yani kendisini gerçekleştirmesi, kendisine varlık kazandırması veya kendi varlığını derinleştirmesi yine kendi özgürlük tanımına bağlıdır. Daha yerinde bir ifadeyle her birey kendi özgürlüğünü, kendi yetenekleri, bilgisi, donanımı, çabası, birikimi sayesinde, yani kendisini eğitmesi sayesinde, kendi varlığının derinlerine inebilmesi sayesinde elde edebilir. Bu sonuç aynı zamanda, soyut bir özellik taşımasına karşılık, özgürlüğün uygulamada somut bir yönünün olduğunu göstermektedir.

Bu noktada özgürlüğün trajedisinden söz etmek yerinde olacaktır. Çünkü kendi özgürlüğünü kuramayan birey, kendini kendi özgürlük anlayışı içine, kendi dar özgürlük anlayışı içine hapsetmek eğilimindedir. Birey kendi özgürlüğünü kuramadıkça, kendini özgür kılamadıkça, başkasının özgürlüğüne musallat olur. Yetkisini, gücünü, otoritesini başkasının özgürlüğünü kısıtlamada kolayca kullanabilir.

Sonuçta ifade özgürlüğü, davranış özgürlüğü ile yer değiştirir; davranışlarımızı kısıtlayan kurallar, ifade özgürlüğün ölçütü halini alır. Bunların arkasında bireylerin kendilerini kendi dar özgürlük anlayışına hapsetmiş olması yatmaktadır. Bu durum, özgürlüğün trajedisidir; çünkü kendini özgürleştiremeyen birey, başkasından da aynı şeyleri talep eder.

Düşünce Özgürlüğü

Özgürlüğün en olgun şeklinin düşünce özgürlüğü olduğunu söyleyebiliriz. İnsanı insan yapan en önemli özellik de yine düşünce özgürlüğüdür. Düşünce özgürlüğünü, “seçenek oluşturabilme” olarak tanımlayabiliriz. Düşüncenin kendine seçenek oluşturması, bilgi ile gerçekleşebilir: bilgi sahibi olmak, seçenek oluşturabilmek, yani düşüncenin özgürleşebilmesi için gereklidir. Bilgi bilgiyi doğurur; ve insan yeni düşüncelere yine bilgi aracılığıyla, bilgiyi kullanarak ulaşır.

Bilgi, eleştirel tutumun da ön koşuludur. Bu durumda bilgi, düşüncede yeni alternatifler oluşturulabilmesine, bu anlamda düşüncenin özgürleşmesine olanak verecektir.

Bilgi, yeni alternatiflerin oluşturulabilmesinin önkoşulu olmakla birlikte, düşüncenin özgürleşmesinden tek başına sorumlu olduğu söylenemez. Nitekim “bilgi”, düşüncenin dar kalıplar içinde tutulması amacıyla da kullanılabilir. Dolayısıyla bilgi kadar eleştirel bir bakış açısının bilinmesine, öğrenilmesine veya benimsenmesine de gerek vardır. Bu durumda bilginin bireyi hangi koşullar altında özgürleştirebileceğini ayrıca sorgulamak gerekir.

 

Birey Psikolojisi

Bireyin psikolojisi, kültürel gelenekler, şartlanmalar doğmatik bir tavır içinde olmayı, deyim yerindeyse “özgürlüğe sırt dönmeyi” açıklamada kullanılabilecek etkenler arasında yer verilebilir. Fakat ben, bireyin kendisini özgürlükten yoksun bırakmasını, tarihi süreç açısından ele almak istiyorum. Bunu da “bireyleşme” kavramı aracılığıyla yapmak istiyorum. “Bireyleşme” olgusu, kişinin kendi yeteneklerine, aklına, bilgisine güvenmesini içerir.

Bu özelliklerin bireyler tarafından benimsenebilmesi için önce sosyal yapı içinde bazı değerinin mevcut olması gerekir; ama daha da önemlisi, bireyin yasaların güvencesi altında olmasıdır.

Yasalar, bireyi itaatten korur; çünkü birey, itaat ederek değil, kendi yetenekleri ve çalışmasıyla biryerlere gelebilmesinin güvencesine ancak yasalarla elde edebilir. Bireyleşmenin temel dayanağı, bireyin kendi varlığını (existence), kendi yapıp etmeleri, başarıları ve yetenekleri aracılığıyla elde edebileceği koşulların mevcudiyetidir. Bunun için bireyin yasaların güvencesi altında olması kaçınılmazdır. Çünkü birey ancak bu sayede bir otoriteye boyun eğerek değil, kendi yetenekleri ve çalışması ile varlık kazanabilir.

 

Bireyin Özgürleştirilmesi

Kolayca tahmin edilebileceği gibi bu olgu, Aydınlanma çağının bir ürünüdür ve Ortaçağ’ın insanı tanımlayışının tam karşısındadır. Ortaçağ’da, özellikle Hıristiyan dünyasında birey, itaat eden ve bu itaati ölçüsünde değer kazanan bir özelliğe sahipti. Bu durumu daha iyi anlayabilmek için şu iki ayrı olguyu birbirinden ayırmak yerinde olacaktır: ilki bireyin özgürleşmesi, ikincisi bireyin özgürleştirilmesi.

Birey başkalarına tanıdığı özgürlük sınırının ötesinde kendisini özgürleştiremez. Yani birey kendi düşüncesini ne kadar özgürleştirebiliyorsa başkasının davranışlarına da o oranda özgürlük kazandırabilir. Diğer bir ifadeyle, birey başkasının özgürlüğüne ne kadar izin veriyorsa, kendisi de o oranda özgürdür, yani kendisini o oranda özgürleştirebilir.

Otoritenin hakim olduğu bir toplumda bireyin özgürleşmesi bir başka bireyin iznine, yorumuna veya tercihlerine bağlıdır. Bu koşullar altında birey, “bireysel” tutum ve davranışlar sergileyebilir; hatta kendini davranışlarında özgür de hissedebilir. Ama aslında bu özgürlük, itaat esası üzerine kurulmuş bir özgürlüktür. O topluluğun üyesi olan birey, ancak itaat ettiği ölçüde o topluluk içinde bir varlık kazanabilir, söz sahibi olabilir ve birtakım yetkiler elde edebilir.

Temel ölçü, otoriteye tabi olmaktır. Otoritenin olduğu yerde bireysellik vardır; çünkü toplumsal ortak çıkarlar değil, kişisel menfaat ön plandadır.

Bireyleşme

Bu olgunun karşısına “bireyleşme“yi koyabiliriz. Bireyleşme, kişisel tutum ve davranışlara sahip olmak demek değildir. Bireyleşme, kişiye yasa ve hukuk aracılığıyla verilen bir haktır. Kişinin özgürleşmesi, yetenekleri ve çalışmasının güvence altına alınmasıyla sağlanabilir. Böyle bir bireyin, başkasının kendisini “özgürleştirmesi”ne artık ihtiyacı olmayacaktır. Böyle bir birey, itaat ederek varlık kazanmak zorunda kalmayacaktır. İtaat etmek, aynı zamanda toplumsal ortak çıkarları içeren aidiyet duygusuna sahip olmamayı gerektirir.

Dolayısıyla birey kendi çıkarlarını herşeyin üstünde tutacak ve bunu da itaat etmek suretiyle elde etmeye çalışacaktır. Kendi özgürlüğünü de başkasının özgürlük anlayışının çerçevesinde belirlemek durumunda olacaktır.

Başarıları kimsenin takdirine bırakılmayan ve kendi özgürlüğünü başkasının izni altında gerçekleştirmek zorunda olmayan birey, kendi varlığını çalışması ve yetenekleriyle, hukukun koruması ve güvencesi altında gerçekleştirme olanağını elde edebilir. Bu bireyleşmedir; yani bireyin kendini ifade edebilme araçlarını seçebilme olanağına sahip olmasıdır.

Sonuç, bireyin kendini ifade edebilme özgürlüğünü kazanması ve düşüncenin önünün açılmasıdır. Birey, bu koşullar altında, artık itaat ederek değil başarılarıyla varlık kazanma olanağına sahip olacaktır. Bu bireyin görevi artık başkasının özgürlük sınırlarını çizmek değil, kendi varlık alanını kendi başarılarıyla kanıtlamak olacaktır.

Bireyselleşme

İşte böyle bir birey, yukarıda da işaret edildiği gibi, kendini ifade etme özgürlüğüne sahip olabilir ve bilgisini yeni bilgilere ulaşmak için kullanması mümkün olur. Bu durumu, bireyselleşme olarak değil bireyleşmek olarak adlandırabiliriz. Bireyin özgürleşmesi ve dolayısıyla özgürleştirilmesi, bireyleşmenin, yasalarla yani hukuk vasıtasıyla sağlanmasıyla gerçekleşebilir.

Aydınlanma Döneminde Bireyin Özgürleşmesi

İnsanlık tarihine baktığımız zaman bireyin özgürleştirilmesinin, bireyin bireyleşmesi olgusunun, Aydınlanma Döneminin programı içinde yer aldığını görüyoruz. Aydınlanma Dönemi, bilimsel düşüncenin de günümüz anlamında biçimlendiği bir dönemdir. Aydınlanma denilince Orta Çağ’dan sonra Hümanizm ve Rönesans’ın sonunda ortaya çıkan bir dönem akla gelir.

 

Aydınlanmayı karakterize eden temel özellik, onun bir “akıl çağı” olmasıdır ve felsefe alanında en önemli temsilcisi de bilindiği gibi Kant’tır. Kant’ın gözünde insan, düşmüş olduğu çukurdan ancak aklı yardımıyla kurtulabilir. Aydınlanma düşünürleri, evrenin akıl yoluyla kavranılabileceği inancındadırlar. Bu düşüncenin dayanağı ise Newton fizik sistemidir.

Çok yönlü etkiler sonucunda ortaya çıkan ve çok yönlü etkileri olan Aydınlanmayı, üç temel üzerinde düşünmek mümkündür. Bunlardan bir tanesi İskoç Aydınlanması, ikincisi Fransız Aydınlanması, üçüncüsü Alman Aydınlanmasıdır. İskoç Aydınlanması empirist bir anlayışı temsil eder ve Aydınlanma’nın kültürel, sosyal, teolojik veya kısaca felsefi ön dayanaklarını oluşturur.

Kapitalizmin İngiltere’de ortaya çıkışında bu dönem düşünürlerinin katkıları dikkate alınırsa, Aydınlanma’nın çok yönlü etkileri kolayca anlaşılır. Fakat beni burada özellikle ilgilendiren husus, İskoç Aydınlanmasının Newton fiziğinin felsefi temellerini oluşturmasındaki yeridir. Daha yerinde bir ifadeyle, Newton fiziğinin getirdiği köklü değişikliğin bu dönem düşünürlerinin katkısıyla yorumlanması ve yeni bir paradiğmanın oluşturulmasına olan katkılarıdır.

 

Fizik ve Felsefe

Newton fiziğini kendinden önceki Aristotelesci fizik ve felsefe anlayışından ayıran temel özelliği şu iki büyülü kavram ile ifade etmek mümkündür: bunlar “niçin?” ve “nasıl?” sorularıdır. Newton fiziği bize fizik dünyanın “nasıl işlediği”ni bildirir. Bu sorunun bir özelliği, rasyonel bir cevap verilmesini gerektirmesidir. Verilecek cevap, deney ve gözlem aracılığıyla test edilebilir bir özellik içerir. Halbuki “niçin?” sorusu, bir erek/amaç (telos) öngörür ve dolayısıyla cevap teolojik bir yoruma açıktır.

İskoç Aydınlanması

Antikçağ felsefesinin ve özellikle de Aristoteles fizik ve felsefesinin “niçin?” sorusu üzerine kurulmuş olması, onun, Ortaçağ teolojisinin tüm ihtiyaçlarını karşılamasına olanak vermiştir. Ne var ki bu soru, onun dayandığı ilkeler ve felsefi kabuller, Newton fiziği dolayısıyla gündemden kalkmak durumundaydı. Daha doğrusu artık tüm paradigmanın bütünüyle değişmesi gerekiyordu. İşte İskoç Aydınlanması, bu değişimin ihtiyaç duyacağı felsefi altyapıyı oluşturdu.

Bu felsefi alt yapı, eski teolojinin beslendiği kaynağın kurtulmasını ve aynı zamanda günlük yaşamı da kapsayan birçok alanda yeni bir bakış açısının geliştirilmesine olanak verdi. Locke, Hume, Berkeley gibi düşünürlerin duyumcu felsefeleri, Newton fiziğinin ihtiyaç duyduğu (empirik verilerin üzerine kurulu) bir felsefenin savunulmasına olanak verdi ve Ortaçağ’ın engizisyon mahkemeleri gibi dönemin karanlık yüzüne güçlü bir ışık tuttu.

 

Akıl Yolu: Bilim

Konumuz çerçevesinde bizi burada ilgilendiren husus, Newton fiziğinin “nasıl?” sorusuna yönelmiş olması ve bu sorunun özellikle eski paradigmanın gündemden kalkmasına ve yepyeni bir paradigmanın oluşmasına olan katkısıdır. Basit bir örnekle, “niçin gece olur?” gibi bir sorunun cevabı, teolojik bir çerçevede verilebilir. Kişi böyle bir soruyu inançları doğrultusunda kendine göre cevaplandırabilir. Fakat “nasıl gece olur?” sorusunun cevabı nesneldir, empiriktir, akıl yoluyla kavranılabilir ve kişiye göre değişmez.

Görüldüğü gibi Newton sistemi, çok köklü bir şekilde bakış açısını değiştirmiş olmaktadır. Bu değişimi en yetkin bir şekilde yorumlayan düşünür Kant olmuştur. Aydınlanma döneminin temel özelliği, Kant’ın da işaret ettiği gibi, başta evren olmak üzere insan ve toplumun akıl aracılığıyla kavranılabilir olduğuna ilişkin kabuldür.

Bu kabul, daha doğrusu bu dönem felsefesi, bu günkü anlamda bilimsel düşüncenin de önünü açmış olmaktadır. Çünkü bilimsel düşünce ile “nasıl?” sorusu arasında tam bir uyum vardır. Bilimsel düşünüşü de “nasıl?” sorusuna çözüm arama olarak karakterize edebiliriz.

Bu çözümün bizi asıl ilgilendiren yönü, hiç şüphesiz onun empirik ve rasyonel olma özelliğidir. Bu özellik yasanın otoriteye üstün geldiği yeri ve kuralların da aidiyetin yerini aldığı yeri ifade eder. Çünkü “nasıl?” sorusu, otoriteye, inançlara, kabullere bağlı olmadan, yani empirik olarak soruna cevap aramayı gerektirir.

 

Metafizik ve İnsan

İnsan, hiç kuşku yok ki, metafizik bir varlıktır. ‘Niçin’ sorusunu sormadan edemez. Bir bilim adamı olsa da hiç kimse hayatını ve yaşamını, sadece ‘nasıl’ sorusuyla dolduramaz. Çünkü beğenilerimizi, inançlarımızı, tercihlerimizi bütünüyle bir kenara bırakarak hareket edemeyiz.

Günlük yaşamımızda veya profesyonelce yaptığımız bir iş içinde de bir noktada mutlaka ‘niçin’ sorusunu sorarız. “Niçin ölürüz?”, “niçin varız?”, “niçin evren var?”, “bu olay niçin başıma geldi?”, “niçin deprem oldu?” gibi soruları elbette sormadan edemeyiz ve kendimize göre de bir cevap veririz. Fakat açıkça görülebileceği gibi bilimsel cevap, ‘niçin’ sorusuna değil, ‘nasıl’ sorusuna bağlı olacaktır.

Elbette metafizik bir varlık olarak, inanan bir varlık olarak, hiç kuşku yok ki “niçin?” sorusunu bir kenara atarak yaşamımızı sürdüremeyiz. Fakat akıl, ‘nasıl’ sorusuna cevap vermeyi gerektirir. Düşüncenin özgürleşmesinin temel koşulu, bir otoriteye bağlı kalmamaktır. Bunun için öncelikle “nasıl?” sorusunu sormak ve bu soruya cevap aramak gerekir.

Aydınlama dönemi de işte bu anlamda bir dönüşümün gerçekleştiği bir çağdır. Bu dönüşümün sadece bilimsel zihniyeti kapsamadığını, günlük yaşama kadar uzandığını, yani bir paradigmanın değişimi anlamını taşıdığını ayrıca vurgulamak yerinde olacaktır.

 

Düşüncenin Özgürleşmesi Koşulu

Düşüncenin özgürleşmesinin ön koşulu, daha önce de işaret edildiği gibi, bilgi sahibi olmaktır. Fakat bu tek başına yeterli değildir; bireyin aynı zamanda “bireyleşmiş” olması da gerekir. Bireyin özgürleştirilmesinin, bireyin bireyleşmesi olgusunun, Aydınlanma Döneminin temel bir paradigması olarak ortaya çıktığını görüyoruz.

Hukuk, bireyleşme olgusunun vazgeçilmez koşuludur. Çünkü bu sayede birey, bir otoriteye itaat etmeden, kendi bilgi ve becerileriyle toplum içinde varlık kazanabilmesinin güvencesini elde eder. Bu olgu özellikle Fransız aydınlanmasını karakterize etmektedir.

Empirist düşünürler Aydınlanma olgusunun felsefi temellerini oluşturmuşlardır. Bu düşünürler hem Newton sisteminin yeni bir bakışla yorumlanmasına olanak vermişler hem de Ortaçağ’ın toplum üzerindeki baskısıyla mücadele etmişlerdir.

Bu dönemin empirist düşünürleri, hurafelere bilinçli bir şekilde karşı çıkmışlardır. Onlara göre insan düşüncesi bir ‘tabularasa’dır, ‘boş bir levha’dır. Boş inançlar ne empirik olarak denetlenebilir ne de akıl ile temellendirilebilir.

İnsan bilgisinin temelinde deney ve gözlem bulunur. Yani otoriteye ve hurafelere bu çerçevede yer vermek söz konusu değildir. Kant ile doruk noktasına ulaşacak olan akılcılık, kısaca ve kabaca söylemek gerekirse, deney ve gözlem aracılığıyla elde edilen bilgiyi rasyonel bir temel üzerinde inşa etmektir. Sonuçta, aklın evreni kavrayabilir ve anlayabilir olduğunu söylemekle de yeni bir adım atılmış olmaktadır. Bu aşama bireyin aklına güvenmesini talep etmektedir. Akla güvenmek, bireyleşme olgusunun ilk aşaması ise, ikinci aşaması, Fransız Aydınlanmasıdır.

Orta Çağ’da Birey Özgürleşmesi

Fransız aydınlanmasının bizim için ayrı bir önemi vardır. Çünkü Osmanlı İmparatorluğu, Aydınlanma olgusuyla Fransız Aydınlanması aracılığıyla ilişki kurmuştur. Fransız aydınlanmasını karakterize eden özellik, hukuk alanında ortaya çıkan değişimdir. Çünkü hukuk, bireyin bireyleşmesi olgusuna olanak vermiştir.

Birey, hukukun üstünlüğü, hukukun bireye tanıdığı koruma sayesinde yeteneklerini ortaya koyma imkânını elde etmiştir. Böylece Ortaçağ’da bireye yön veren, düşüncesini ve davranışlarını belirleyen otoritenin yerini yasa almıştır; itaatin karşısına kurallar çıkmış ve sonuçta inanç ve aklın sınırları belirlenmiştir.

Bir toplumda birey yasalarla korunuyorsa, otoritenin gücü bireye yön vermede yeterli olamaz ve bireyin gücünün ötesine geçme şansını da yitirir. Eğer yasa ve kurallar varsa, otoriteye, yani buyurganlığa yer yoktur. Sonuçta, otoritenin olmadığı yerde, itaat de söz konusu olmayacaktır. Kuralların nihai dayanağını ilahi bir kaynak olduğu kabul edilse bile, yasa yapan akıldır; ve akıl, kuralları koyandır. Dolayısıyla ortak bir davranış biçimi itaat değil, kurala uymak olabilir.

 

Aydınlanma Bildirgesi

Şüphesiz otorite bir yönüyle inancımızın da dayanağıdır; ve insan inanan bir varlıktır. Aklın otoritenin yerini alması, inancın ortadan kaldırılması anlamına gelmemektedir. Bizzat Kant’ın ifade ettiği gibi amaç, iki alanı birbirinden ayırmak, birinin diğerinin görevini üstlenmesinin önüne geçmektir. İnanç belirli konularda akla göre bir üstünlüğe sahip olabilir, fakat aklın görevlerini yerine getiremez.

Kant’a göre insan, “Aydınlanma Bildirgesi”nde ifade ettiği gibi, aklına güvenmek, aklını kullanmak, “bilmeye cesaret et!”mek (sapereaude!) zorundadır. Bu durumda amaç aklın işleyişinin önünü açmak, yani onu özgürleştirmektir. Fakat aklın bu işlevinin bir anlamda toplumsal ve yasal bir zemin üzerine de oturması, toplumsal işleyişin bir parçası olması veya diğer bir ifadeyle bir paradigma içinde bir değerinin olması ve varlık kazanması gerekir. Bu özellik Fransız aydınlanmasının amaçları içinde karşımıza çıkmaktadır.

Orta Çağ Otoritesi

Nitekim birey, 1789 Fransız İhtilali’nin eşitlik, özgürlük ve laiklik gibi ilkeleri aracılığıyla yeniden tanımlanmış, bir amaç çerçevesinde teorik olarak yeniden kurgulanmıştır. Bireylerin hak ve ödevleri yasalarla belirlenmiş, böylece Orta Çağ otoritesi yerine hukuk aracılığıyla yeniden tanımlanmıştır. Otoriteye bağlı itaatin yerini yasaların alması, bireyleşme olgusuna da nesnel bir zemin kazandırmıştır. Çünkü birey artık başarılarıyla, çalışmasıyla, yetenekleriyle bir varlık kazanmak zorundadır.

Bunun için bireyin özgür olması, özgürlüğün hukuk çerçevesinde güvence altına alınması gerekir. Özgür düşünce, yeni paradigmanın vazgeçilmez koşuludur.

 

Akıl, Sorgulama ve Düşünce

Aydınlanma Dönemi ile otoriteden yasaya, itaatten kurala uymaya ve sorgusuz kabulden akıl ve sorgulamaya geçiş, insanlık tarihinin gerçekten en büyük dönüşümlerinden birisidir. Bu dönüşüm bilim ve teknolojiden kültür ve sanata kadar bir çok alandaki başarılara da kaynaklık etmiştir. Batı dünyası hepimizin bildiği gibi, Aydınlanma dönemindeki bu dönüşümün bir sonucu olarak bugünkü seviyesine ulaşmıştır.

Aydınlanma Dönemini bu açıdan eleştirenler yok değil. Çünkü dünyanın savaş, kan, gözyaşı ile dolu olması da yine bu aydınlanmanın eseri olarak nitelelenebilir; ama ben bu görüşte değilim. Burada bunun tartışmasını yapmayacağım. Şu bir gerçek ki, bilimde, teknolojide, kültürde, sosyal yapıda ortaya çıkan gelişmeler, bu Aydınlanma Döneminde gerçekleşen yapısal dönüşümlerle veya kısaca aklın özgürleştirilmesiyle doğrudan ilgilidir.

Bilgi

Düşüncenin özgürleşmesinin temel koşulu, yukarıda da işaret edildiği gibi, bilgidir. Öte yandan dış koşullara bağlı olarak özgür düşüncenin gelişmesinin engellenmesi veya tam tersine önünün açılması mümkündür. Dolayısıyla bireylerin, deyim yerindeyse “özgürce düşünebilmeleri”, içinde bulunulan paradigmaya ve dolayısıyla toplumsal koşullara sıkıca bağlıdır.

Şüphesiz bireyler kendi koşullarını belirli bir ölçüde de olsa belirleyebilme özelliğine sahiptirler. Dolayısıyla dış belirlenimlerin olumsuz koşullarını aşabilmek iradesini gösterebilirler. Fakat böyle bir iradeyi her bireyden beklemek mümkün olmadığı gibi, önemli olan nokta, toplumsal koşulların, bireylerin yaratıcı düşüncelerine olanak verecek şekilde düzenlenmiş olmasıdır. Eğer ileri teknoloji çağında yaşadığımızı dikkate alırsak, bir toplumda en çok bilgiye gereksinim olduğunu kolayca söyleyebiliriz.

Birey, enerjisini ve yeteneklerini haklarını elde etmek için değil, yeteneklerini ortaya koyabilmek için harcamalıdır.

 

Prof. Dr. Şafak Ural
İstanbul Üniversitesi,
Edebiyat Fakültesi,
Mantık Anabilim Dalı

 

Kaynak: Prof. Dr. Safak Kural

 

 

Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar
Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.
Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.

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  • 9 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 00:59
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  • 9 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 04:08
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  • 10 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 21:52
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  • 15 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 10:17
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