PISA uzmanı Selçuk Şirin Eğitimdeki Yanlışları Anlattı

Ül­ke gün­de­min­de eği­tim, dai­ma si­ya­se­tin göl­ge­sin­de ka­lı­yor. Po­li­ti­ka­cı­lar, öğ­ren­ci­le­rin ‘na­sıl bir Tür­ki­ye­’ için ye­tiş­ti­ril­di­ği­ni pek sor­gu­la­mı­yor. Bü­yük laf­lar et­me­ye ge­rek yok. Eği­tim sis­te­mi­mi­zi sık sık de­ğiş­tir­sek de ya­rı­nın li­der kad­ro­la­rı­nı ye­tiş­tir­mek­te zor­la­nı­yo­ruz. Çün­kü “ve­ri­ye da­ya­lı­” öl­çüm­ler­le ha­re­ket et­mi­yo­ruz. Eğer böy­le yap­say­dık, Ulus­la­ra­ra­sı Öğ­ren­ci De­ğer­len­dir­me Prog­ra­mı­’n­da  (PI­SA) 15 yaş gru­bun­da son ya­pı­lan ölç­me­ler­de Türk öğ­ren­ci­ler, fen ders­le­rin­den “sı­fı­r” çek­mez, ma­te­ma­tik­te de yüz­de 1’ler­de kal­maz­dı.

65 ül­ke prog­ram­da

Eko­no­mik İş­bir­li­ği ve Kal­kın­ma Teş­ki­la­tı (OECD) ta­ra­fın­dan 2000’den bu ya­na her 3 yıl­da bir ya­pı­lan PI­SA sı­nav­la­rı, öğ­ren­ci­le­rin oku­ma be­ce­ri­le­ri, ma­te­ma­tik ve fen alan­la­rın­da­ki okur ya­zar­lı­ğı­nı öl­çü­yor. 2012’de bu prog­ra­ma 34’ü OECD üye­si 65 ül­ke ka­tıl­dı. 2003’ten bu ya­na yer al­dı­ğı­mız ölç­me­ler­de ne ya­zık ki bir “Tür­ki­ye Mu­ci­ze­si­”ni gös­te­re­me­dik. Bu haf­ta­ki söy­le­şi­miz­de ken­di­si de PI­SA öl­çüm­le­riy­le il­gi­li ça­lı­şan New York Üni­ver­si­te­si Ste­in­hardt Kül­tür, Eği­tim ve İn­sa­ni Ge­li­şim Fa­kül­te­si­’n­den Doç. Dr. Sel­çuk Şi­ri­n’­le ko­nu­yu ma­sa­ya ya­tır­dık.

Sis­te­ma­tik re­form

*Sel­çuk Bey, PI­SA so­nuç­la­rı, öğ­ren­ci­le­ri­mi­zin 20-30 yıl ön­ce­ki so­run­la­rı hâ­lâ ya­şa­dı­ğı­nı or­ta­ya koy­du. Siz­ce sis­tem­de­ki ha­ta­lar ne­ler­dir?

Sis­te­min en te­mel sı­kın­tı nok­ta­sı şu; re­form ya­par­ken ye­ni bir uy­gu­la­ma­yı yön­te­mi, mo­de­li, müf­re­da­tı, sı­na­vı, ne der­se­niz eği­ti­me da­ir her şe­yi gün­de­me ge­ti­ri­yo­ruz ama “sis­te­ma­tik re­for­m” yap­mı­yo­ruz.

Sis­te­ma­tik re­form ne­dir?

Ba­şa­rı­lı uy­gu­la­ma­la­ra bak­tı­ğı­mız­da, ve­ri­ye da­ya­lı re­form de­mek­tir. Ön­ce, sı­kın­tı­la­rı ve­riy­le tes­pit et­me­niz la­zım. On­dan son­ra bu nok­ta­la­rı, sis­te­min ak­sa­yan ta­raf­la­rı ney­se çö­züm­le­ri­ni hem içe­ri­den hem dı­şa­rı­dan ‘ge­niş bir ka­tı­lım­la­’ tar­tış­ma­nız gerek. Ya­ni, “En iyi­si­ni ben bi­li­ri­m” de­mek ye­ri­ne ‘Ben de bil­mi­yo­rum, sen de bil­mi­yor­sun, ha­di bir ara­ya ge­le­li­m’ de­mek la­zım.

Ko­bay ol­ma­sın­lar

*San­ki bun­lar ya­pı­lı­yor ama uy­gu­la­ma­da ba­şa­rı­lı ola­mı­yo­ruz?

Ba­kın, en önem­li şey, bu meş­ve­ret ve gö­rüş­me­den son­ra­ki sü­reç­tir. 4-5 mo­del çı­kar or­ta­ya. Bu mo­del­le­ri alır­sı­nız, pi­lot uy­gu­la­ma­lar­la
et­kin­li­ği­ni ana­liz eder­si­niz, en ba­şa­rı­lı uy­gu­la­ma­yı da bü­tün Tür­ki­ye­’ye ya­yar­sı­nız. Böy­le olun­ca da ço­cuk­la­rı ‘ko­ba­y’ gi­bi kul­lan­ma­mış olur­su­nuz, uy­gu­la­ma­ya ge­çen re­form­lar da­ha ön­ce test edil­miş ve so­nu­cu alın­mış ol­du­ğu için her­han­gi bir risk içer­mez.

*PI­SA­’da alı­nan so­nuç­lar böy­le de­vam eder­se, ge­le­cek­te iş­gü­cü pi­ya­sa­sın­da Tür­ki­ye ge­ri mi ka­la­cak?

Al­dı­ğı­mız sı­nav so­nuç­la­rıy­la na­sıl kal­kı­nıp iş­bir­li­ği ya­pa­ca­ğız? ‘Dün­ya gi­de­rek glo­bal­le­şi­yo­r’ de­ni­yor. Kah­ve ve şe­ker fark­lı ül­ke­ler­den ge­li­yor. Cep te­le­fon­la­rı­nın par­ça­la­rı da öy­le. Ar­tık, ül­ke­ler mil­li eği­tim­le­ri­ni ‘mil­li­’ tu­ta­mı­yor.

Dün­ya­dan ko­pa­rız

*Kü­re­sel­leş­mey­le ar­tık mil­li eği­tim­de­ki ‘mil­li­’ söz­cü­ğü öl­dü mü?

Öl­dü ta­bi­i ki. Çün­kü, eği­ti­mi siz mil­li ve ka­pa­lı tut­tu­ğu­nuz za­man ken­di be­ce­ri­le­ri­ni­zi bu­ra­da tat­min ede­bi­lir­si­niz ama bir ele­man yurt­dı­şı­na gi­dip iş ya­pa­mı­yor­sa siz uzun va­de­de dün­ya­nın glo­bal eko­no­mik sis­te­min­den ko­pu­yor­su­nuz. Do­la­yı­sıy­la glo­bal sis­tem­le mü­ca­de­le et­mek için be­ce­ri­ler ne­ler­dir di­ye bun­lar be­lir­le­ni­yor. Ay­rı­ca ye­tiş­kin­ler­le il­gi­li iş dün­ya­sı­na ka­tı­lım ve öl­çüm­ler alı­nı­yor. PI­AC de­ni­li­yor. Tür­ki­ye bu­ra­ya ka­tıl­mı­yor. Ka­tıl­ma­mız la­zım. Çün­kü PI­SA so­nuç­la­rıy­la PI­AC so­nuç­la­rı ne­re­dey­se bi­re­bir ör­tü­şü­yor.

SIFIR ÇEKMENiN nedeni test sınavları

*Geçenlerde, “Geleceğin Liderliği” konulu bir görüşmeye katıldım. Bu alanda sorunlarımız olacağından söz edildi. Bu kaygılar doğru mu?

O liderler nereden çıkacak? Temel bilgilere sahip, sadece 4 işlemi yapanlarla oturup çok işlemli, çok bilinmeyenli bir denklemi çözerek bir mühendislik harikası yaratılması zor. Fen bilimlerinde Türkiye PISA’da 6’ıncı yani en üst basamakta ölçüldü. Bu yüzde 1 bile değil, o seviyede
doğru çözüp başarılı olanların oranı “sıfır.”

*Böyle çıkmasından neleri sorumlu tutmalıyız?

Sıfır çıkmasının birçok nedeni var. Eğer sınavlar onu ölçmüyorsa en önemli nedeni, ÖSYM’nin ‘çoktan seçmeli’ sınavı, yani test sınavlarıdır. Bununla temel becerileri ölçüyorsunuz. Oysa PISA sınavının yarısı çoktan seçmeli, diğer yarısı ise “boşluk yazmalı” ve kompozisyon geliştirmeli.

Okul öncesi eğitim çok önemli

* Okulön­ce­si eği­tim, ço­cuk­la­rı­mı­zın ge­le­ce­ği için ne ka­dar önem­li?

Tür­ki­ye­’de okul ön­ce­si eği­tim alan ço­cuk­lar­la al­ma­yan ço­cuk­la­rı kı­yas­la­ya­bi­le­cek bir ve­ri ta­ba­nı­mız var. 15 ya­şı­na gel­di­ği za­man ma­te­ma­tik­te, fen­de ve Türk­çe­’de okulön­ce­si alan ço­cuk, al­ma­yan­dan 1,5 yıl ön­de. O 1,5 yıl üni­ver­si­te­ye gi­riş­te bir o ka­dar avan­taj­lı olu­yor. İşe gi­riş­te de öy­le. Şim­di biz tüm ço­cuk­la­ra okulön­ce­si eği­tim ve­re­bil­sey­dik, OECD ül­ke­le­ri ara­sın­da bi­rin­ci ol­muş­tuk. Oy­sa PI­SA­’da 33 ül­ke için­de son­dan üçün­cü­yüz.

Temel eğitimde Asya mucizesi

*Başta Çin olmak üzere Asya ülkeleri temel eğitimde başarıyı nasıl sağlıyorlar?

Evet, temel eğitimde gerçekten Asya mucizesi diye bir kavram var. Çünkü dünyada en başarılı sistemler, Asya’da. Mesela, PISA’da Şanghay birinci oldu. Çin içinde bir uygulama yöntemi Şanghay. Orada uygulanıyor, sonra da bütün Çin’e yayılıyor. Singapur ikinci olarak son derece başarılı. Üçüncü olan Güney Kore hem PISA hem de başka sınavlarda mesela Tims’de ilk üçte.

4 kural uyguluyorlar

*Bu ülkelerdeki sistemlerin sırrı nedir?

Üç ülkenin dört temel özelliği var. Birincisi öğretmene değer veriyorlar, bu sosyo-ekonomik anlamda da maaşa tekabül ediyor. İkincisi eğitim politikasında bir tutarlılık var. Eğer bir ülkenin eğitiminde reform yapmak istiyorsanız, “1 liram var hocam” diyorsanız, çok net ve yalın bir yanıtı var: “Okulöncesi eğitime yatıracaksınız.” Dolayısıyla öğretmen kalitesi, politik tutarlılık ve okulöncesi eğitim dedik. Dördüncüsü eğitim politikalarıyla uygulanan sistem arasında bir özdeşlik olmalı. Oysa Türkiye’de uygulama ile sistem birbirleriyle örtüşmüyor. Böyle bir sorumuz var.

Sadece FATiH’le başarı gelmez

*Ba­şa­rı­lı ül­ke­ler, ne­den tek­no­lo­ji­yi kul­lan­mı­yor­lar? Oy­sa biz­de FA­TİH pro­je­si gün­dem­de.

O pro­je­siy­le Fin­lan­di­ya ve­ya Vi­et­na­m’­da ger­çek­le­şen mu­ci­ze­yi ba­şa­ra­maz­sı­nız. İki ül­ke­de de öğ­ren­ci­le­rin ta­ma­mı, “Ben okul­da dur­mak is­ti­yo­rum, oku­la gi­di­yo­ru­m” di­yor. Öğ­ren­mek son de­re­ce eğ­len­ce­li bir ma­ce­ra­dır. İyi bir ro­man okur­ken 3’ün­cü say­fa­ya ka­dar sı­kı­lır­sı­nız ama üçün­cü say­fa­dan son­ra kim­se si­zi tu­ta­maz. Öğ­ret­me­nin gö­re­vi si­ze o ilk 3 say­fa­yı okutmak.

Değişen dünyaya hazır olmalıyız

*Finlandiya, PISA’da nasıl birincilik alıyor?

Bu ülke, bütün PISA çalışmalarında birinciydi hep ama son 3 yılda düşme oldu. Bu ülkenin başarı modelini kopya edenler de var. Mesela Vietnam, adeta ikinci Finlandiya oldu. Bu iki ülke de “öğretmen”e çok değer verdiler. Eğitimde başarı için önce öğretmenlere değer verilmesi gerekiyor. Öğretmenliğin profesyonel bir mesleğe dönüştürülmesi lazım. Bu mesleği devam ettirmek için de kendinizi yenilemeniz lazım sürekli. Eğitimin maksadı, çocuklarımızı, yeni kuşağı geleceğin dünyasına hazırlamaktır. Bunun için de dünyada her şey sürekli değiştiğine göre siz de çocuklarınızı değişen dünyaya göre hazırlamanız lazım.

4+4+4 sisteminde sıkıntı okul öncesinde

* “4+4+4” sis­te­mi için ne­ler dü­şü­nü­yor­su­nuz?

Bu sis­te­min iyi ta­ra­fı te­mel eği­tim yıl­la­rı­nın ar­tı­rıl­ma­sı. Bu iyi bir şey. Dün­ya­da te­mel eği­tim 12 yıl, biz­de de öy­le ol­du.

*Sis­tem­de siz­ce en bü­yük sı­kın­tı ne­dir?

En bü­yük sı­kın­tı okulön­ce­si eği­ti­me ağır­lık ve­ril­miş ol­ma­ma­sın­da. Doğ­ru­yu söy­le­mek ge­re­kir­se es­ki Mil­li Eği­tim Ba­ka­nı Ni­met Baş dö­ne­min­de okul ön­ce­si eği­tim­de bir re­form baş­la­tıl­dı. 3 yıl­lık bir plan çer­çe­ve­sin­de Tür­ki­ye­’yi 3 böl­ge­ye böl­dü­ler çok sis­te­ma­tik bi­çim­de. Her yıl bel­li böl­ge­ler ka­tı­lı­yor­du. Bir atı­lım ya­pıl­dı o za­man, çok gü­zel bir uy­gu­la­may­dı.

Google varken ezbere eğitim hamallık oldu

*Ez­ber eği­tim­le öğ­ren­ci­ler bil­gi­yi ana­liz ede­mi­yor de­ğil mi?

Evet, ar­tık dün­ya­da Go­og­le ile bir­lik­te ve­ri­ye, bil­gi­ye ulaş­mak “ha­mal­lı­k” ol­du. Ya­ni, biz eği­tim­de bil­gi­nin tek­ra­rı­nı öl­çü­yo­ruz, dün­ya ise bil­gi­yi ne­re­de na­sıl kul­la­na­ca­ğı­nı öl­çü­yor. So­run bu. Biz­de­ki ölç­me sis­te­mi, bil­gi­nin tek­ra­rın­dan çı­kıp bil­gi­nin kul­la­nı­mı, eleş­ti­rel dü­şün­ce, ta­hay­yül et­me, sen­tez-ana­liz ye­te­nek­le­ri­ni ödül­len­di­ren bir eği­tim ölç­me ve de­ğer­len­dir­me sis­te­mi­ne ih­ti­ya­cı­mız var. Hem acil ola­rak…

Kaynak: http://www.bugun.com.tr/sistematik-reform-sart-haberi/985410

Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar
Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.
Ahmet Doğan
Follow Me

Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.

PISA uzmanı Selçuk Şirin Eğitimdeki Yanlışları Anlattı” için 54 yorum

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  • 30 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 22:47
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  • 31 Temmuz 2018 tarihinde, saat 19:23
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  • 9 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 23:01
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  • 10 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 06:42
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