Robotlarla savaşacak mıyız?

Son yıllarda sürekli artan Bilim ve teknolojideki gelişmeler, bilim kurgu filmlerindeki bazı sahnelerin çok yakında gerçek olacağı hissini yaratıyor. Robotlar teknolojisindeki tedirgin olan robot uzmanları Birleşmiş Milletler’e (BM) bir mektup yazarak öldürme yeteneği olan robotların geliştirilmesinin ve kullanılmasının yasaklanmasını talep ettiler. Peki gerçekten korkmaya başlamalı mıyız? Yakında katil robotlar ile savaşacak mıyız?

100 robot uzmanı, yaşanan teknolojik gelişmeler üzerine robotların silahlanabileceği ve savaş çıkarabileceği konusunda tedirgin olarak Birleşmiş Milletler’e bir mektup yazdı. Robot üretimi konusunda bazı yasakların getirilmesi ve hukuki bir çerçevesinin olamsı gerektiğini vurguladıkları mektupta, katil robotlarla yaşanabilecek savaşlara dikkat çekildi. Buna rağmen, bilim insanları sanıldığı gibi robotların insanlardan daha zeki değil aptal olmalarından daha çok korkuyor!

 

Son yıllarda yapay zeka tartışmaları bilimi gittikçe daha çok meşgul ederken, özellikle savaş teknolojisinde geliştirilen robotlar birçok bilim insanını tedirgin edecek düzeye geldi. Öğrenebilen ve öğrendiklerinin üzerine bizler gibi yeni şeyler koyabilen robotların insanlık için bir tehdit olup olmayacağı konusu sürekli tartışılıyor. Herkesin aklında aynı soru: Savaş konusunda yeni bir devir mi başlıyor?

 

BBC Türkçe’nin haberine göre Avustralya’daki New South Wales Üniversitesi’nden öğretim üyelerinden, yapay zeka uzmanı Prof. Dr. Toby Walsh, “Savaş alanı olan hava, deniz, deniz altı ve kara gibi her alanda, dünya çapında ordular artık kendi başına savaşabilen silahlarını sergiliyor” diyor.

 

KALASHNİKOV ŞİRKETİNİN ÜRETTİKLERİ ENDİŞELENDİRİYOR

 

Öldürme gücü bulunan makinelere karşı çıkanlara uykusuz geceler geçirten yeniliklerden biri Kalashnikov şirketinin geliştirdiği yeni bir taarruz modülü: Bu, 7,62 mm makineli tüfek ile bilgisayar sistemine bağlı bir kameradan oluşan ve üreticilerinin söylediğine göre bir insanın kontrolü olmaksızın kendi hedeflerini belirleyebilen bir silah bu.

Şirket, BBC’nin röportaj taleplerine yanıt vermedi, ancak Rusya’nın resmi haber ajansı Tass’a göre, bu sistem, “hedefleri belirlemek ve vurma kararını alabilmek için sinir ağı teknolojileri” kullanıyor.

Belirli ihtimaller dahilinde çalışan ve önceden programlanmış görevleri yerine getirebilen geleneksel bilgisayarların aksine, sinir ağı daha önceki yaşamış olduğu tecrübelerden öğrenerek, daha önceden karşılaşmadığı durumlara adapte olabilecek şekilde dizayn ediliyor. Pek çok insanı endişelendiren de bu kendi kararlarını verme yeteneği.

“BU ÇOK TEHLİKELİ!”

Savunma sanayinde uzmanlaşmış olan Ultra Electronics şirketinde baş teknoloji uzmanı Andrew Nanson, “Eğer silahlar yapay sinir ağları ve ileri düzey yapay zeka kullanıyorlarsa, o zaman saldırı kararını neye göre aldıklarını öğrenemeyebiliriz ve bu çok tehlikeli” diyor.

 

Otomatik savunma sistemleri, halihazırda bir tehdidin şekli, boyutu, hızı ve güzergahı gibi özelliklerini analiz ederek, karar alabiliyor ve insanlardan daha hızlı bir şekilde uygun karşılığı verebiliyor.

Peki bu tür sistemler daha önce karşılaşmadıkları bir tehditle karşılaşırlar ve yine de onlara karar verme yetkisi tanınırsa ne olur?

Böyle bir durumda yapılacak hatalar ve olasılıklar, masum sivillerin hayatını kaybetmesi, askeri olmayan hedeflerin vurulması ve dost ateşi gibi çok ciddi sonuçları da beraberinde getirebilir.

 

YA APTAL OLURLARSA?

 

Uzmanlar da aslında en büyük endişesi yapay zekanın çok zeki olmaya başlayıp Terminatör filmlerindeki Skynet süperbilgisayar sistemi gibi dünyayı ele geçireceğinden değil, çok aptal olmasından korkuyor.

Sheffield Üniversitesi’nden yapay zeka ve robot teknolojisi profesörü Noel Sharkey, “Şimdiki sorunlar süper zeki robotlarla değil, detayları belli kurgular haricinde sivil hedeflerle askeri hedefler arasında ayrım yapamayan aptal olanlarla” diyor.

Bu endişelere rağmen, Kalashnikov’un son ürünleri Rusya’da denenen tek otonom ve yarı-otonom silahlar değil. İnsansız bir kara harp aracı olan Uran-9, makineli tüfeğe ile 30 mm’lik havan topuna sahip. 10 kilometreye varan uzaklıklardan kontrol edilebiliyor.

Platform-M savaş robotları aşırı sıcak ve soğuklarda çalışma kabiliyetine sahip.
Armata T-14 ‘süper tankı’nı dizayn eden Andrei Terlikov, bu tankın harp alanında tam otonom tankların yolunu açacağını söylüyor.

Uralvagonzavod isimli üretici firma da BBC’nin röportaj talebine yanıt vermedi, ancak ‘Katil Robotları Durdurun Kampanyası’ndan Profesör Sharkey, potansiyelinin farkında.

“T-14 Batı’dan yıllar yılı önde ve Avrupa kıtasının sınırında binlerce otonom T-14’ün bulunması fikri dayanılmaz” diyor.

BU ROBOTLARI SADECE RUSLAR YAPMIYOR

Geçen yaz, ABD Savunma Bakanlığı Gelişmiş Araştırma Projeleri Kurumu (Darpa), gözetleme amacıyla kullanılanı sıradan bir insansız hava aracına, gelişmiş yapay zeka yükledi ve Massachusetts’ta yapılan testte Orta Doğu’da bir köyün birebir kopyası üzerinde uçuş yapılarak, sivillerin arasında silahlı militanlar tespit edildi.

Samsung’un otonom olarak ateş etme donanımına sahip SGR-A1 adlı sabit silahı Kore Tarafsız Bölgesi’nin Güney Kore kısmı sınırına konuşlandırıldı.

İngiltere’nin neredeyse Red Arrows (Kırmızı Ok) jeti büyüklüğündeki insansız hava aracı Taranis, BAE Systems şirketi tarafından geliştirildi.

BAE aracın çok sayıda silahı uzun mesafeye taşıyabilecek şekilde dizayn edildiğini ve tam otonom ‘unsurlar’ barındıracağını söylüyor.

ABD’nin Sea Hunter otonom savaş gemileri tek bir mürettebat üyesi olmadan denizde uzun süreler kalmak için üretildi, hatta limana giriş ve limandan çıkışında da kendi kendine rehberlik ediyor.

Phantom Works, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, BAE Systems, Lockheed Martin ve General Dynamics’in de aralarında bulunduğu, Batılı silah üreticileri, BBC’nin röportaj talebini reddetti. Bunu bile bu alanın tartışmalı tarafının bir göstergesi olarak algılamak mümkün.

 

Peki Otonom askeri teknoloji sadece insanların yürüttüğü askeri operasyonları desteklemek için kullanılabilir mi?

Danışmanlık şirketi PricewaterhouseCoopers’ta savunma bölümünün başı Roland Sonnenberg, savaş simülasyonu, lojistik, tehdit analizi ve ofis görevlerinin daha alelade ancak aynı derecede öneme sahip işler olduğunu ve robotlar ile yapay zekanın yerine getirebileceğini söylüyor.

“Yapay zeka gerçek dünyaya etkili bir şekilde uygulanabildikleri ölçüde faydalılar ve ancak şirketler, tüketiciler ve halklar teknolojiye güvenirlerse ve sorumluluk sahibi şekilde davranırlarsa geniş çapta kullanılabilirler” diyor.

Robotlar, Siyasetçiler için Çekici olabilir

Bazıları otonom silahların insan kayıplarını azaltabileceği görüşünde. Ancak Savunma ve Güvenlik Çalışmaları için Royal United Services Enstitüsü’nden kıdemli araştırmacı Elizabeth Quintana aynı fikirde değil:

“Robotik sistemler konuşlandırmak siyasetçiler için daha çekici olabilir çünkü daha az asker hayatını kaybedecek. Bana soracak olursanız savaş insani olmayan bir aktivite ve eğer başka bir ülkeye ya da gruba uzaktan savaş başlatırsanız, size ülkenizde zarar vermenin bir yolunu bulacaklar çünkü ancak bu şekilde misilleme yapabilirler.”

Otonom silah sistemlerinin ülke içi terör faaliyetleri ve siber savaşı artırma ihtimali, belki bu yeni teknolojiye daha dikkatli yaklaşmanın bir başka nedenidir.

 

Kaynak: Sözcü

 

 

Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar
Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.
Ahmet Doğan
Follow Me

Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.

Robotlarla savaşacak mıyız?” için 69 yorum

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  • 1 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 03:39
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  • 1 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 14:03
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  • 2 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 00:27
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  • 2 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 08:36
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  • 2 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 18:33
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  • 3 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 02:06
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  • 3 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 10:01
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  • 3 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 19:57
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  • 4 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 02:23
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  • 4 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 11:07
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  • 4 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 21:25
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  • 5 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 03:49
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  • 5 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 13:52
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  • 5 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 15:48
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  • 5 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 21:57
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  • 6 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 03:54
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  • 6 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 13:04
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  • 6 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 21:54
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  • 7 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 03:37
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  • 7 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 12:21
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  • 7 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 22:35
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  • 8 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 05:52
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  • 8 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 15:42
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  • 9 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 07:22
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  • 9 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 16:25
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  • 10 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 01:34
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  • 10 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 08:42
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  • 10 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 09:10
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  • 13 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 05:33
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  • 13 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 22:51
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  • 14 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 12:26
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  • 15 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 22:57
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  • 16 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 04:07
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  • 16 Ağustos 2018 tarihinde, saat 16:41
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