Alzheimer Hastalığı Beyin’de Neler Yapar?

Nörobilim alanında Aberdeen Üniversitesi’nde doktora öğrencisi ve akademisyen olan Anna Cranston, Alzheimer hastalığının insan beyninde neler yaptığını, nasıl hareketlenmeler gerçekleştiğini THECONVERSATION ‘e yazdığı makale ile detaylı bir şekilde analiz etti.

ANNA’nın yazmış olduğu yazı şöyle;

Dünya çapında yaklaşık 50 milyon kişinin Alzheimer hastalığı olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ve birçok ülkede hızla yaşlanan nüfusla birlikte, mağdurların sayısı giderek artıyor.

Alzheimer hastalığının beyindeki problemlerden kaynaklandığını biliyoruz. Hücreler işlevlerini kaybetmeye başlarlar ve sonunda ölürler, hafıza kaybına, düşünce yeteneklerinde bir düşüşe ve hatta kişilik değişikliklerine neden olurlar. Zayıf beyin hacmine neden olan ve atrofi adı verilen bir süreçten dolayı beynin belirli bölgeleri de küçülür. Ancak bunun gerçekleşmesi için beynin içinde gerçekte neler oluyor?

Hastalığın temel sebebi, beyindeki bölgeler arasındaki elektriksel ve kimyasal sinyaller işleyen ve ileten uzmanlaşmış hücreler olan nöronlar arasındaki iletişimi kesmektir. Beyinde meydana gelen hücre ölümünden sorumlu olan şey budur – ve biz bunun nedeni amiloid ve tau adı verilen iki tür proteinin birikimi olduğuna inanıyoruz. Bu iki protein arasındaki tam etkileşim büyük ölçüde bilinmemekle birlikte, amiloid, beta amiloid “plaklar” olarak bilinen yapışkan kümeler halinde birikirken, tau ölen hücrelerin içinde “nörofibriler yumaklar” olarak oluşur.

 

Alzheimer hastalığını teşhis koymanın zorluklarından biri, hastalığın erken evrelerinde bu protein birikiminin ölçülmesinde güvenilir ve doğru bir yolumuzun bulunmamasıdır. Aslında, hasta öldükten sonra, fiili beyin dokusunu inceleyerek, Alzheimer’i kesinlikle teşhis edemeyiz.

Elimizde olan bir diğer problem sağlıklı hastaların beyinlerinde de beta-amiloid plaklarının bulunmasıdır. Bu, amiloid ve tau proteinlerinin varlığının hastalığın hikayesini anlatmadığını düşündürmektedir.

Yapılan son araştırmalar, kronik inflamasyonun rol oynayabileceğini öne sürüyor. İnflamasyon, hastalığa karşı vücudun savunma sisteminin bir parçasıdır ve beyaz kan hücreleri, vücudun yabancı maddeleri korumak için kimyasallar serbest bıraktığında ortaya çıkar. Ancak, yeterince uzun bir süre zarfında hasara neden olabilir.

Beyinde, dokuya zarar veren uzun vadeli inflamasyona, mikroglia adı verilen hücrelerin birikmesi neden olabilir. Sağlıklı bir beyinde bu hücreler, atıkları ve toksinleri sindirir ve yok eder. Ancak Alzheimer hastalarında mikroglia, toksik tau kıvrımları veya amiloid plakları içerebilen bu enkazı temizlemekte başarısız olur. Vücut atıkları temizlemeye çalışmak için daha fazla mikroglia aktive eder, ancak bu da enflamasyona neden olur. Uzun süreli veya kronik inflamasyon özellikle beyin hücrelerine zarar veriyor ve nihayetinde beyin hücresi ölümüne neden oluyor.

Bilim adamları kısa süre önce bu sorundan sorumlu olabilecek TREM2 adlı geni tespit ettiler. Normalde TREM2, mikroglia’ya, beyindeki beta-amiloid plakalarını temizlemek ve beyindeki iltihaplanma ile mücadele etmek için yol gösterir. Ancak araştırmacılar, TREM2 geni düzgün çalışmayan hastaların beyinlerinin nöronlar arasında bir beta-amiloid plak oluşumuna sahip olduğunu bulmuşlardır.

Birçok Alzheimer hastası da kalp ve dolaşım sistemi ile ilgili sorunları yaşar. Beyin arterlerinde beta-amiloid birikintileri, ateroskleroz (arterlerin sertleşmesi) ve mini vuruşlar da görülebilir.

Bu “vasküler” problemler beyindeki kan akışını daha da düşürebilir ve beyinden zehirli atıkları uzaklaştırmak için kritik olan bir yapı olan kan-beyin bariyerini parçalayabilir. Bu aynı zamanda beynin glikozu çok fazla emmesini önleyebilir – bazı araştırmalar bunun beynin içindeki Alzheimer hastalığına bağlı toksik proteinlerin başlamasından önce oluşabileceğini ileri sürmüştür.

 

Kişiselleştirilmiş Alzheimer Tedavisi

Yakın zamanlarda, araştırmacılar beynin içine, özellikle sinapslar olarak bilinen nöronlar arasındaki kesin bağlantılarda daha derinlere bakıyorlardı. NATURE Dergisinde yayınlanan yakın tarihli bir araştırma, hücrelerdeki bu sinaptik iletişimin nöronlar arasında dağılmasına katkıda bulunabilecek bir işlemi anlatmaktadır. Bulgular, bunun spesifik bir sinaptik proteininin yeterli olmadığında (RBFOX1 olarak da bilinir) meydana gelebileceğini gösteriyor.

 

Bu tür araştırmalar sayesinde gelişme ve klinik araştırmalarda Alzheimer hastalığında ortaya çıkan birçok beyin değişikliğinin bir veya daha fazlasını hedef alan birçok yeni ilaç bulunmaktadır. Birçok araştırmacı şimdi Alzheimer hastalarına daha kişiselleştirilmiş bir yaklaşımın geleceğine inanıyor.

Bu, kanser için mevcut tedavilere çok benzer, yukarıda bahsedilen problemlerin birçoğunu hedef alan bir uyuşturucu kombinasyonunu içermektedir. Bu yenilikçi araştırmalar, bu karmaşık hastalığın tedavisinde yeni bir yola meydan okuyacak ve öncülük edeceği umut edilmektedir.

 

Kaynak: THE CONSERVATION

 

Ahmet Doğan
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Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar
Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.
Ahmet Doğan
Follow Me

Ahmet Doğan

Araştırmacı - Yazar Elektrik - Elektronik Mühendisliğinden 2014'te mezun oldu. Aynı alanda Yüksek Lisans eğitimine devam ederken, aynı zamanda ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER lisans bölümünü okumaktadır. İnsan Hakları alanında ve Mülteci alanında Uluslararası bir Sivil Toplum Kuruluşunda çalışmaktadır.

Alzheimer Hastalığı Beyin’de Neler Yapar?” için 94 yorum

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